Sequencing batch reactors (SBR) are a type of activated sludge process for the treatment of wastewater. SBR reactors treat wastewater such as sewage or output from anaerobic digesters or mechanical biological treatment facilities in batches. Oxygen is bubbled through the mixture of wastewater and activated sludge to reduce the organic matter (measured as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)). The treated effluent may be suitable for discharge to surface waters or possibly for use on land
The inlet valve opens and the tank is being filled in, while mixing is provided by mechanical means (no air). This stage is also called the anoxic stage.
Aeration of the mixed liquor is performed during the second stage by the use of fixed or floating mechanical pumps or by transferring air into fine bubble diffusers fixed to the floor of the tank. No aeration or mixing is provided in the third stage and the settling of suspended solids starts. During the fourth stage the outlet valve opens and the "clean" supernatant liquor exits the tank.